Rights and obligations. Copyright

The author shall be responsible for securing the necessary permissions to cite other papers, reproducing materials that have already been published and using content from other publications.

A publisher, when asked for such a permission, may request a corresponding payment. The author has the obligation to ensure that such a payment is made in order to use the necessary material. Please note that a permission request to reproduce materials from another publication does not necessarily imply the author’s obligation to actually use such material; however, if the material is not ultimately used, the author should inform the copyright holder accordingly, as a courtesy.

Although publishers generally own the copyright for the papers published under their name, it is also a form of respect to ask permission to reproduce the intellectual property from the actual author of the relevant paper. Indeed, publishers often grant permission, having previously obtained the approval of the author of the respective paper.

All requests for permission to reproduce copyrighted material must be sent to the copyright holder in duplicate. Please obtain the copyright holder’s signature on both copies so that one copy is stored in his records and one copy remains with you. If you need a draft request for permission to publish material from another paper, please send an email at office@researchandeducation.ro.

Having obtained the permission, please identify all correspondences with the manuscript pages or with the illustration number from your paper. Please send the copyright agreement(s) at office@researchandeducation.ro, together with your full manuscript, but please keep as well a copy for your own records.

The copyright agreement for reproducing content from another paper is required in the following situations:

  • Any previously published paperthat is to be cited directly to an extent exceeding 5% of its total oramounting to more than 250 words in a single citation or amounting more than 500 words in the new paper.
  • Any citationthat is to be made, regardless of length, belonging to a song, poem, newspaper or other unpublished source (e.g. a letter, a discourse).
  • Any illustrationfrom a published source that is to be used, including tables, maps, diagrams even when they are graphically recreated.
  • Any photograph– especially those belonging to professional photographers – even if this is a self-portrait, that is to be used and included in a new paper.

Please take under consideration the following:

Works published before 1922 are in the public domain. Works published after 1978 remain under copyright as long as the author is still alive, plus another 70 years thereafter. Works created and published before 1978 remain under copyright for 75 years from the publishing date, provided the copyright has been renewed. Works created by any person while being a public employee are in the public domain.

Recognition of Intellectual Property Rights:

Whether or not permission is required for using any material belonging to other authors, the original source must be specifically indicated – in a note or internal reference of the text, in a clarification note to a table, in an acknowledgement of ownership in the case of an illustration. Once permission has been granted, the applicant should reasonably follow any special conditions stipulated by the copyright holder. Giving credit for any photograph (briefly indicating the source) is either necessary or appropriate. Since a credit lineis an acknowledgement of the source, no innovations are necessary. The only significant exception of a credit lineis an illustration (graphic, table, drawing, photograph, etc.) representing the author’s own creation.

In case of a citation – in full – or for a table, the full indication of the source may be followed by: “Reproduced with the publisher’s permission”. The illustration’s credit linewill be included after the relevant image/legend, between parenthesis. If the illustration has been modified, indicate “subsequent modification” or “adapted from …”.

If you have any doubts about the situations that may require permission or if you have any questions about copyrights, please contact us at office@researchandeducation.ro.