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Improving Assessment and Feedback in the Learning Process: Directions and Best Practices



This study focuses on ways to improve assessment and feedback in the educational context. Assessment and feedback are critical elements of the learning process and have a significant impact on student performance. The study aims to identify directions and best practices to support the improvement of feedback and assessment in the educational context. The study examines various bibliographic sources to identify constructive and effective approaches to providing negative feedback and ways to improve the evaluation process. In order to carry out this research, we considered the systematic analysis of the specialized literature. Thus, the Google Academic search engine was queried regarding “assessment in the learning process” and “feedback in the learning process” from the period 1980-2023. We obtained 70100 results for “assessment in the learning process” and 445000 results for “feedback in the learning process”. We finally selected 29 articles to fit our study. The results indicate that feedback and assessment can be improved by adopting a constructive approach, as well as by using educational technologies and diverse assessment methods. This study has important implications for teachers and educators who wish to improve student learning and performance by providing more effective and constructive feedback and assessment.



evaluation, feedback, education, performance, assessment methods.

JEL Classification

I20, I21, I23.


1. Introduction

Assessment in education refers to the process of evaluating students’ knowledge, skills, and understanding of a particular subject or concept. It is a critical component of the learning process, as it helps teachers and students identify areas of strength and areas that need improvement (Suskie, 2018). Assessments can take many forms, such as quizzes, tests, essays, projects, presentations, and performance-based assessments. They can be used to provide feedback to students, measure learning outcomes, and inform instruction (Ferdig et al., 2020).

Assessment is essential in providing a comprehensive picture of students’ learning progress, and it is critical to ensure that assessments are valid, reliable, and fair. Validity means that an assessment measures what it is intended to measure, while reliability means that the assessment results are consistent and accurate. Fairness means that the assessment does not disadvantage any particular group of students (Carrillo & Flores, 2020).

Effective assessment practices involve clear communication of learning goals, timely and constructive feedback, and the use of multiple forms of assessment. By providing regular feedback to students, teachers can help them understand where they are excelling and where they need to focus their efforts. Additionally, using a variety of assessment methods can provide a more comprehensive understanding of students’ knowledge and skills, as different students may excel in different types of assessments (Martin et al., 2019).

Feedback is information given to students about their performance or work, with the aim of helping them improve. It can be provided by teachers, peers, or even the students themselves, and can come in different forms such as verbal, written, or through assessments. Effective feedback should be specific, timely, constructive, and goal-oriented, with the purpose of helping students identify areas of strength and areas that need improvement. By receiving feedback, students can become more self-aware of their own learning process and develop skills to regulate their own learning, which can lead to improved academic performance and personal growth (Brookhart, 2017).

The learning process of students is a complex and dynamic process that involves acquiring knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values through a variety of experiences. The process can be influenced by multiple factors, such as the student’s motivation, prior knowledge, learning style, environment, and teaching strategies (Horsburgh & Ippolito, 2018).


2. Literature Review

Student assessment and feedback are two fundamental topics for the learning process and involve the collection and analysis of information about students’ knowledge and skills in a particular area of study (Dawson et al., 2019). There are two main types of assessment: formative assessment and summative assessment (Dixson & Worrell, 2016). Formative assessment takes place during the learning process and aims to provide feedback and improve students’ performance, while summative assessment takes place at the end of the learning process and aims to evaluate performance and give grades or ratings (Dolin et al., 2018).

Feedback is information provided about students’ performance, which can be both positive and negative. It can be given by teachers, peers, or even students themselves, and aims to improve students’ performance and motivation (Wisniewski et al., 2020). To establish a more seamless transition between the assessment and feedback processes, it is important to recognize the inherent connection between the two. Assessment serves as the foundation for providing meaningful feedback to students.

Formative assessment, as mentioned earlier, occurs during the learning process. It involves gathering evidence of students’ understanding and progress to provide immediate feedback that can guide their further learning (Dixson & Worrell, 2016). This feedback helps students identify their strengths and weaknesses, enabling them to make necessary adjustments and improvements. The formative assessment process generates valuable data that informs the feedback provided to students. Teachers can analyse the assessment results to identify areas where students are struggling or excelling. Based on this analysis, they can tailor their feedback to address specific misconceptions, reinforce learning objectives, and suggest strategies for improvement (Liu & Wang, 2019).

Feedback, in essence, is an integral part of the formative assessment process. It encompasses the information shared with students regarding their performance, whether it be positive reinforcement or constructive criticism. This feedback can come from various sources, including teachers, peers, or even students themselves (Chen & Huang, 2019). Teachers play a crucial role in providing feedback to students. They can offer personalized guidance, highlighting areas of improvement and offering suggestions for further development. Peer feedback, on the other hand, allows students to learn from and support each other. This collaborative approach fosters a sense of community and encourages students to actively engage in the learning process (Nicol & Macfarlane‐Dick, 2006).

Furthermore, self-assessment empowers students to reflect on their own progress and performance. By encouraging students to evaluate their work against established criteria, they develop metacognitive skills and take ownership of their learning. Self-assessment can be complemented by teacher feedback, enabling students to compare their self-assessment with an expert evaluation and gain a more comprehensive understanding of their strengths and areas for growth.

In summary, the assessment process, specifically formative assessment, sets the stage for providing targeted feedback to students. The data generated from assessments guides teachers in delivering personalized feedback, while peer and self-assessment complement this feedback by fostering collaboration and metacognitive skills. By linking assessment and feedback, educators can create a continuous learning cycle that supports students’ growth and motivation (Wisniewski et al., 2020). Positive feedback can encourage students to continue to develop, while negative feedback can be used as an opportunity for improvement. The ways in which feedback is given vary from written to verbal feedback, and it can be given in the short or long term (Black & Harrison, 2018).

Both feedback and student assessment are important in the learning process because they provide essential information to students about their performance and help them improve their skills and knowledge (Carless & Boud, 2018). By providing positive and negative feedback, students can improve their performance and become more motivated in the learning process. Additionally, student assessment can help identify students’ strengths and weaknesses and can be used to guide the learning process effectively (Mulliner & Tucker, 2017). The motivation for the importance of student evaluation and feedback in the context of education is that they are crucial in improving student performance and motivation. Understanding the importance and proper use of feedback and evaluation can help increase understanding and deepen knowledge, improve skills, and develop abilities (Korpershoek et al., 2020). Furthermore, student feedback and evaluation are important in developing self-evaluation and self-regulation skills, which are essential for long-term success in education and in life (van Loon & Roebers, 2017).


3. Methodology

The research question is: What are the best practices for improving assessment and feedback in the learning process in preuniversity school?

The purpose of this research is to identify directions and good practices that support the improvement of feedback and evaluation in the educational context of the pre-university environment starting from the analysis of the specialized literature.

Research objectives:

O1. Analysis of the ways in which student assessment takes place.

O2. Analysis of the importance of feedback in the learning process in preuniversity school.

O3. Analysis of the impact of negative feedback on the student.

O4. Analysing how to give negative feedback in a constructive way.

In order to carry out this research, we considered the systematic review of the specialized literature. We chose this method because it involves identifying, evaluating, and synthesizing relevant information from a range of data sources relating to a particular research topic or question. This method is commonly used in academia to review previous research and to identify research trends and directions in a particular field of study.

Thus, the Google Academic search engine was queried regarding “assessment in the learning process” and “feedback in the learning process” from the period 1980-2023. We obtained 70,100 results for “assessment in the learning process” and 445,000 results for “feedback in the learning process”.

From a total of 515,100 results, we narrowed the search according to the following criteria:

  1. Full articles: We opted for full research papers rather than abstracts, conference papers or short communications. Full papers usually provide a comprehensive analysis of the research topic.
  2. Non-duplication: Each item we selected was chosen to be unique and not a copy of another item. This ensures that research findings are not repeated and provides a diverse range of perspectives on the subject.
  3. Type of research paper: We opted for articles that fall under the category of research papers. Research papers usually present original research, methodology, results, and conclusions. They contribute new knowledge or insights to the existing body of literature.
  4. High number of citations: we opted for articles that have a significant number of citations from other academic works. This indicates that the research is influential and has been widely cited by other researchers in the field.
  5. Language: Articles must be published in English. English is widely accepted as the standard language for scientific communication, ensuring wider accessibility and international readership.

We finally selected 29 scientific papers to fit our study.

The qualitative analysis carried out in the study involved analysing the ways in which student assessment takes place, the importance of feedback in the learning process in pre-university school, the impact of negative feedback on students, and how to give negative feedback in a constructive manner. The analysis of the specialized literature provided insights and directions to support the improvement of feedback and assessment in the educational context.

The research on improving assessment and feedback in the learning process has significant utility in the field of education. By analysing existing literature on this topic, researchers can identify effective approaches and strategies for improving the assessment and feedback practices in various educational contexts.

The results of this research can inform the development of new policies, curricula, and instructional practices that can help students to achieve better learning outcomes. In addition, the research can also provide insights into the challenges that educators face when implementing effective assessment and feedback practices and can help to identify areas for further research. Moreover, the research can benefit policymakers, curriculum designers, and educational institutions seeking to improve the quality of education by providing evidence-based recommendations for enhancing the assessment and feedback practices. This can ultimately lead to more effective teaching and learning, improved student achievement, and increased student engagement and motivation.


4. Results and discussions


4.1. Student assessment

Student assessment is an important aspect of the learning process and can help improve student performance by providing feedback and guiding the learning process. It is important that evaluation is carried out objectively, with valid and reliable tools, and used fairly to guide students’ learning process and help them develop their skills and knowledge (Darmuki et al., 2017).

The subject of evaluation has been addressed over time by several specialists in the field of education and psychology, based on research and educational practices. Among the specialists who contributed to the development of the definition of student evaluation is Benjamin Bloom, an American educational psychologist who developed a taxonomy of educational objectives and advocated the use of formative evaluation in the learning process. The use of evaluation data to improve the learning process is extremely important and should have a formative character, meaning that it should help identify and improve students’ skills and competencies (Stake, 1995; William, 2011).

Educational objectives should be clearly defined and measurable, so that they can be evaluated and monitored regularly, which can lead to improved learning and increased student performance (Chatterjee & Corral, 2017). Student evaluation can take many different forms, each with its own unique strengths and weaknesses. Tests and exams are a common form of assessment that allows instructors to evaluate students’ knowledge and understanding of specific course material (Tosuncuoglu, 2018). Projects and written papers, on the other hand, are often used to assess students’ ability to apply knowledge and solve problems in a creative and original way. These types of assessments can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of a student’s understanding of a particular topic (Eodice et al., 2017). Presentations and discussions are another form of assessment that can be used to evaluate students’ communication and argumentation skills. These assessments allow students to demonstrate their ability to articulate their ideas and engage in productive discussions with their peers (Chakraborty et al., 2021). Finally, portfolios can be used to collect and evaluate students’ work over an extended period of time, such as an entire school year or a specific study project. This allows instructors to assess a student’s growth and development over time and provides a more holistic view of their learning progress (Bader et al., 2019).

Descriptive evaluation is a form of evaluation that focuses on describing students’ performance in terms of relevant skills and competencies, without using numerical or traditional grading notations. In descriptive evaluation, teachers provide detailed and specific feedback on what students are doing well and what they need to improve (Hamoud et al., 2018). Descriptive evaluation can be more subjective than other forms of evaluation because it is based on teachers’ opinions and judgments, but it can also be more useful for students because it provides more detailed and specific feedback. Descriptive evaluation can be based on learning objectives and competencies established in the curriculum and can be used in various contexts, including primary and secondary education, as well as higher and professional education. It can be particularly useful for evaluating competencies that cannot be evaluated through traditional grades or notations, such as social competencies, communication skills, and creativity (Fernandes et al., 2019).

The result of the evaluation can be communicated through a presentation, a discussion, a meeting, a letter, an email, a report, or news. Additionally, the result can be communicated through communication platforms. In the field of student evaluation, numerous studies have been conducted addressing various topics, including the validity and reliability of evaluation methods – research has examined how precise and consistent the evaluation methods used, such as tests, exams, projects, and ongoing assessment (Wiggins, 1998). The role of evaluation in the process of learning and improving student performance is crucial. In this way, evaluation can be used to significantly improve student performance. Here are some examples of the roles of evaluation in the process of learning and improving student performance:

  • Evaluation is a valuable tool that can be used to support student learning and development in a variety of ways. This information can then be used to develop personalized learning and instructional plans that meet the specific needs of each student (Suskie, 2018).
  • Another benefit of evaluation is that it can be used to measure students’ progress over time. By tracking progress, teachers can identify any gaps in knowledge or skills and develop strategies to help students overcome these challenges. This can help ensure that students are able to achieve their learning objectives and reach their full potential (Dixson & Worrell, 2016).
  • Evaluation also plays a crucial role in providing feedback to students. Specific and concrete feedback can be used to highlight areas that need improvement and to help students develop strategies to improve their performance. This feedback can be used to motivate students and help them take ownership of their learning (Kluger & DeNisi, 1996).

Overall, evaluation plays a critical role in the process of learning and improving student performance. It is important to conduct regular and appropriate evaluations to ensure that students benefit from the best learning environment and to help each student reach their maximum potential.


4.2. Feedback in the learning process

The definition of feedback is widely accepted in the literature of psychology, management, and education. Researchers and specialists in the fields of psychology, management, and education have contributed to the development and refinement of the concept of feedback and its importance in the process of learning and personal development (Omer & Abdularhim, 2017; Wisniewski et al., 2020). Feedback refers to the process of providing information about a person’s performance with the goal of improving this performance and can be offered in a variety of contexts, including academic learning, teamwork, interpersonal relationships, and personal development (Ramaprasad, 1983).

There are two main types of feedback namely: positive and negative. Positive feedback is information about the good aspects of a performance, while negative feedback refers to the problems or aspects that need improvement. It is important to provide both positive and negative feedback to help improve performance (Butler, 1987).

Feedback in the learning process is crucial. Feedback plays an important role in the process of learning and personal development. One of its key benefits is that it helps to identify strengths and weaknesses, providing individuals with the necessary information to improve their performance and achieve their goals (Angelo & Cross, 2012). In addition, feedback is essential for improving performance, as it provides individuals with specific information on what they can do to improve their skills and abilities. This can be a crucial factor in achieving success in academic or professional settings (Brookhart, 2017). Feedback can also be a powerful motivator, encouraging individuals to continue to exceed their performance by providing positive reinforcement. Conversely, negative feedback can provide necessary information for improvement and personal development (Werdhiastutie et al., 2020).

Finally, feedback is an important tool for creating a safe and trusted environment in which people feel comfortable sharing their opinions and receiving feedback. By providing open and honest feedback, individuals can build stronger relationships and develop a greater sense of trust and respect (Blair & McGinty, 2013).

According to the literature studied, feedback to students can be provided in several ways, including:

  1. Feedback is an essential part of the learning process and can be provided in various ways. One way is through grades or marks given in tests and exams, which provides immediate and precise feedback on students’ performance (Angelo & Cross, 2012).
  2. Another way is through individual discussions with students, which offers a more personalized approach to feedback.
  3. Written comments are also effective in providing detailed feedback, highlighting both strengths and areas for improvement.
  4. Feedback from peers or other teachers can also offer valuable insight into performance from different perspectives.
  5. Feedback should always be clear, specific, and constructive, providing concrete suggestions on how students can improve their performance and progress (Ilgen & Moore, 1987).

In general, feedback should be clear, specific, and constructive, providing concrete suggestions on how students can improve their performance and progress. Regardless of how they are communicated, grades in primary school are usually accompanied by additional feedback on students’ performance. Teachers can organize meetings with parents or meetings with students to discuss their performance and provide feedback on areas that need improvement.


4.3. Negative feedback and its impact on students

One of the most important studies entitled “Assessment for Learning: Putting it into Practice” (Black & Harrison, 2003) focuses on assessment for learning and feedback for improving student performance and it presents concrete ways to implement these approaches in the classroom. The conclusions argue that assessment for learning and feedback are critical to improving student performance and should be an integral part of the learning process. The study focuses on ways to provide specific, relevant, and performance-oriented feedback, as well as on how to involve students in the assessment and feedback process, and it has had a significant impact on educational practice in the UK and other countries by promoting feedback-based learning and collaboration in the classroom (Roblyer, 2005).

The negative feedback from the teacher can have a strong impact on the student, affecting their confidence and motivation for learning (Filgona et al., 2020). When a student receives negative feedback, they may feel that they do not meet the teacher’s expectations or that they do not have the ability to cope with school tasks. If negative feedback is given repeatedly or is focused only on errors or deficiencies, the student may become discouraged or demotivated, which can lead to a decrease in academic performance. This can also have a negative impact on self-esteem and attitude towards school and learning (Young, 2000).

Therefore, it is important for teachers to provide balanced feedback and to pay attention to the positive aspects of students’ performance. Feedback should be specific and focused on improving performance rather than critical or insulting. Additionally, teachers can offer suggestions and resources to help students improve their performance so that feedback is useful and constructive.

In general, negative feedback can have a strong impact on students, but if given appropriately and balanced, it can be a valuable tool for improving performance and learning. Regarding the negative approach to feedback, we have analysed a series of studies that have examined the impact on students to better understand how feedback can influence student performance and motivation. For example, the study “The Effects of Negative Feedback on Self-Esteem and Task Performance in Children” (Henderlong & Lepper, 2007) examined the effects of negative feedback on self-esteem and performance in children aged 8 to 12. The results showed that negative feedback can lead to lower self-esteem and poorer performance on the given task.

“The Impact of Negative Feedback on Motivation and Performance: The Role of Goal Orientation“ (Finkelstein & Fishbach, 2010) is another study that examined how negative feedback affects student motivation and performance and how these effects are influenced by goal orientation. The results showed that negative feedback can have a negative impact on motivation and performance, especially in the case of students with a performance orientation.

Based on the analysis of existing research, we can conclude that negative feedback can have a negative impact on student performance and motivation in several ways: negative feedback can have several negative effects on students, including decreased self-confidence, the development of anxiety, and decreased motivation. Negative feedback can cause students to doubt their abilities and lose confidence in themselves, leading to feelings of anxiety and worry about performing poorly. Additionally, negative feedback can decrease students’ motivation and interest in learning, making it harder for them to engage in classroom activities and tasks.


4.4. Ways to give negative feedback constructively

Giving negative feedback constructively is essential in the process of learning and improving students’ performance. Negative feedback can be an effective tool for students to identify areas of weakness in their performance, allowing them to improve their skills. It is important, however, for feedback to be given constructively to avoid discouragement or demotivation (Aslam & Khan, 2021). Constructive feedback also provides opportunities for growth by enabling students to develop strategies to address problems and improve their performance (Omer & Abdularhim, 2017).

Additionally, constructive feedback encourages open communication between students and teachers, allowing for a more supportive and collaborative learning environment. Lastly, negative feedback can help students develop self-regulation skills by promoting self-evaluation and the development of their own improvement strategies. By providing constructive feedback, educators can help students reach their full potential and achieve success (Dowden et al., 2013).

When giving negative feedback to students, it is important to do so in a way that encourages them to improve their performance. Here are some ways to give negative feedback that can be effective in this regard:

  1. To effectively give negative feedback, it is important to follow certain guidelines. Firstly, it is better to offer specific feedback rather than general comments. This way, students can understand exactly what needs to be improved and can work on that specific aspect.
  2. Secondly, feedback should be given in an empathetic tone, emphasizing the opportunity for improvement rather than harsh criticism (Happy et al., 2013).
  3. Thirdly, it is important to identify the positive aspects of students’ performance before giving negative feedback. This helps students stay motivated and receptive to feedback.
  4. Additionally, it is useful to encourage students to find solutions and strategies to improve their performance. This promotes self-regulation skills and helps students develop critical thinking abilities.
  5. Lastly, feedback should be given consistently, not just at the end of a project or exam. Frequent feedback can help students stay on track and continuously improve their skills. Following these guidelines can make negative feedback a valuable tool for student development.


4.5. Directions for improving learning process performance

Starting from the systematic analysis of the specialized literature, we have created Figure 1 entitled “Directions for improving learning process performance” as follows:

Figure 1. Directions for improving learning process performance.Source: the author.

In the Figure 1, entitled “Directions for improving learning process performance”, we can see that these directions can help improve feedback and evaluation of students in an educational context.

There are several directions that can help improve the learning process performance and feedback for students in an educational context:

  1. Increase the frequency and quality of feedback: Provide timely and constructive feedback on a regular basis to students.
  2. Feedback should be specific, meaningful, and tailored to each student’s individual needs. This can help students identify their strengths and areas for improvement.
  3. Develop feedback-giving skills: Teachers should be trained to provide feedback in a way that is supportive and encourages student engagement.
  4. Feedback should be delivered in a way that is clear, concise, and actionable.5. Use evaluation to improve the learning process: Teachers should use evaluation to identify areas where students are struggling and adjust their teaching methods accordingly. Evaluation can also be used to identify areas of strength that can be further developed.
  5. Create a positive environment for feedback and evaluation: Students should be encouraged to seek out feedback and evaluate their own progress. This can be done by creating a safe and supportive learning environment where students feel comfortable sharing their thoughts and ideas (Shute, 2008).
  6. Use technology for feedback and evaluation: Technology can be used to facilitate feedback and evaluation in a variety of ways. This can include online assessments, self-evaluation tools, and other digital resources.

By implementing these directions, teachers can help students develop consistently and improve their performance in the learning process.


5. Conclusions

After the systematic analysis of the literature, we reached to several conclusions, which we present below.

Student assessment is essential for improving student performance by providing feedback and guiding the learning process. It should be carried out objectively, using valid and reliable tools, and used fairly to help students develop their skills and knowledge. Evaluation data should be used formatively to identify and improve students’ skills and competencies. Clearly defined and measurable educational objectives enable regular evaluation and monitoring, leading to enhanced learning and increased student performance. Different forms of assessment, such as tests, projects, presentations, discussions, and portfolios, offer unique strengths and weaknesses in evaluating students’ knowledge, application, communication, and growth over time. These varied assessments provide a comprehensive evaluation of students’ understanding and progress.

Descriptive evaluation focuses on describing students’ performance in terms of relevant skills and competencies without using numerical or traditional grading notations. It provides detailed and specific feedback to help students identify areas of improvement and is particularly useful for evaluating competencies that cannot be measured through traditional grades. Evaluation plays multiple roles in the learning process, including supporting student learning and development, measuring progress over time, and providing specific feedback. Regular and appropriate evaluations are crucial to creating an optimal learning environment and helping each student reach their maximum potential.

Feedback is widely accepted and recognized as a crucial element in psychology, management, and education. Researchers and specialists have contributed to its development and importance in the learning and personal development process. Furthermore, feedback is the process of providing information about performance with the aim of improving it. It can be given in various contexts, such as academic learning, teamwork, interpersonal relationships, and personal development.

Positive and negative feedback are both essential in helping individuals improve their performance. Positive feedback highlights strengths, while negative feedback identifies areas that need improvement. Both types of feedback are necessary for growth and development. Moreover, feedback plays a significant role in learning and personal development. It helps individuals identify their strengths and weaknesses, provides specific information to enhance performance, and serves as a motivator for continuous improvement.

Feedback contributes to creating a safe and trusted environment where individuals feel comfortable sharing their opinions. It fosters stronger relationships and builds trust and respect among individuals. Feedback to students can be provided in various ways, such as grades or marks in tests and exams, individual discussions, written comments, and feedback from peers or other teachers. Clear, specific, and constructive feedback is essential, providing concrete suggestions for improvement.

In primary school, grades are often accompanied by additional feedback on students’ performance. Teachers may organize meetings with parents or students to discuss performance and provide feedback on areas that require improvement. Negative feedback from teachers can significantly impact students, affecting their confidence, motivation, and academic performance. Repeated or solely focused on errors or deficiencies, negative feedback can lead to discouragement, demotivation, and a negative attitude towards learning.

Teachers should provide balanced feedback, highlighting both positive aspects and areas for improvement. Feedback should be specific, constructive, and aimed at enhancing performance. Suggestions and resources can be offered to support students’ improvement.

Negative feedback can have negative effects on self-esteem, task performance, motivation, and goal orientation in students. It can decrease self-confidence, develop anxiety, and reduce motivation and interest in learning. Constructive negative feedback is essential for students’ learning and improvement. It helps identify areas of weakness and promotes growth and self-regulation skills. Constructive feedback encourages open communication, collaboration, and the development of improvement strategies.

Guidelines for giving constructive negative feedback include providing specific feedback, using an empathetic tone, highlighting positive aspects before addressing areas for improvement, encouraging students to find solutions, and providing consistent feedback. Effective feedback and assessment practices can significantly enhance the learning experience and promote student success. This is because feedback allows students to understand their strengths and weaknesses, and assessment provides a clear understanding of how well students have learned the material. Implementing best practices for feedback and assessment can help teachers provide students with the support they need to achieve their full potential. Overall, it is a valuable and essential area of study for educators seeking to improve teaching and learning outcomes.

After the research we noticed that in the educational context, feedback and student assessment are essential for evaluating performance and improving the learning process. To improve these processes, here are some proposed directions:

  1. To help students improve their performance and develop constantly, teachers should increase the frequency and quality of feedback. By providing specific and constructive feedback, teachers can help students understand what they need to improve and how to do so effectively.
  2. Teachers should develop their feedback-giving skills to provide effective feedback that encourages students to develop. This includes providing constructive feedback and using effective techniques to help students understand how to improve.
  3. Assessment should be used to identify students’ needs and improve the learning process.
  4. Teachers should provide specific feedback and use data from assessments to adapt the learning process to students’ needs. This will help students to progress effectively.
  5. Teachers should create a positive environment for feedback and assessment by establishing clear rules for feedback and assessment and encouraging students to give feedback to each other. This will foster a positive culture of improvement and collaboration.
  6. Technology can be a valuable tool in giving feedback and assessment. Teachers should explore ways to use technology to provide efficient feedback and facilitate the assessment process. This will help to improve the quality and effectiveness of feedback and assessment and to make the process more efficient for both teachers and students.

We emphasize the importance of feedback in the learning process and propose some suggestions for teachers, students, and parents on ways to provide and receive feedback in order to maximize positive effects and minimize negative ones.

Therefore, we propose for teachers to provide effective feedback to students, it is important to be specific, clear, and detailed in indicating both the positive and negative aspects of their work. It’s also important to use an empathetic tone and encourage students to continue to improve their performance by including constructive suggestions. Encouraging active participation in the feedback process and providing regular feedback are also critical.

Furthermore, for students it’s important to listen carefully to the feedback received, ask questions to clarify misunderstandings, and consider both positive and negative feedback to identify ways to improve performance. Negative feedback should not discourage students but rather be used as an opportunity to learn and improve.

Parents can support their children’s learning as well by encouraging them to accept and consider feedback from teachers and set goals for improving performance. It’s also important to offer support and encouragement regardless of the feedback received and communicate with teachers to better understand the feedback and identify ways to support their children’s performance.


6. Originality/Value

The originality of this research lies in its specific approach to improving assessment and feedback in the educational context through the analysis of specialized literature. By employing a systematic literature review method, the research aims to identify directions and best practices that support the enhancement of feedback and assessment in education.

The research distinguishes itself through its specific objectives, which include analysing the ways in which student assessment takes place, examining the importance of feedback in the learning process in pre-university schools, exploring the impact of negative feedback on students, and analysing how to provide constructive negative feedback. This comprehensive approach allows for a deeper understanding of key aspects related to assessment and feedback in education and can contribute to the development of more effective and relevant practices.

Furthermore, the originality of the research lies in the selection and critical analysis of 29 relevant scientific articles, representing a diverse range of perspectives and approaches in the field of assessment and feedback in the learning process. By focusing on research papers with significant citation numbers and published in English, the research ensures a solid foundation of information and contributes to the advancement of existing knowledge in the field.

By providing directions and best practices for improving assessment and feedback in the learning process, the research offers valuable insights both in the academic sphere, by identifying research trends and directions, and in the educational sphere, by influencing education policy, curriculum development, and enhancing teaching and learning practices.


About the Author

Tatiana Tutunaru

ORCID ID: 0009-0002-9550-3139

Valahia University of Târgoviște, Târgoviște, Romania




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